Tyranny of numbers

Does economic growth in Iran increase income inequality?

Posted in General, Inequality by Djavad on January 15, 2018

Inclusive growth is what international organizations recommend these days, and it hard to argue otherwise.  Economic growth is better when rich and poor equally benefit.  Better still, is pro-poor growth, the type that lifts poor people’s incomes more than the rest.  The recent unrest in Iranian cities makes this question timely: was Iran’s recent economic growth following the implementation of the nuclear deal unequal, inclusive, or pro-poor?  Clearly, low-income youth who staged the protests believe that growth has not been inclusive.  Can data verify their sentiments? It turns out they do.  More specifically, the economic growth of 2016, which is the main fruit of Rouhani’s international and domestic policies, does not seem to have reached all social classes equally.    (more…)

Poverty and living standards in Iran after the nuclear deal

Posted in General, Poverty, Subsidy reform by Djavad on January 3, 2018

Many observers in the West have been quick to blame the recent unrest in Iran on high and rising poverty, which is in turn seen as a failure of the Iran nuclear deal (also known as the JCPOA), or the squandering of its windfall.  President Hassan Rouhani sold the nuclear deal to voters, who have elected him twice, as the only way he could improve their lives.  The unrest taking place in Iran’s smaller cities suggests that this promise is far from realized.  As I have written before, there is little doubt that the economy rebounded after JCPOA, but did poverty and the living standards of ordinary Iranians also improve with this economic recovery? (more…)

Rouhani’s new budget aims to eliminate cash transfers

Posted in General, Macroeconomy by Djavad on December 31, 2017

This post is in keeping with my past practice of reviewing proposed government budgets, but this year’s review takes greater urgency in view of the recent protests in Iranian cities that have been linked to the budget for 2018/19 sent to the parliament just three weeks ago.  The basic elements of the budget are the same as in previous years — keeping the size of the government in check and assigning a minimalist role to public investment.  But there are big cut to a popular cash transfer program that has been in existence since 2010.


Trends in poverty and income inequality and Iran election debate

Posted in General, Inequality, Poverty by Djavad on May 17, 2017

This is not my first post on poverty and inequality in this blog, but I feel I need to update my previous posts on these topics because of the confusing stuff said about them by the presidential candidates. Thanks to the availability of surveys of household expenditures and incomes, we know quite a bit about both poverty and income inequality, but everyone who uses these data does not come to the same conclusion.  I have read frequently that cash transfers have increased poverty, a claim that challenges common sense and the available evidence. (more…)

Iran’s changing demography and the 2017 presidential election

Posted in General by Djavad on May 14, 2017

We are told that the state of the economy does not favor Rouhani’s re-election.  The recession is over but ordinary people do not feel it: unemployment is up as was poverty (at least until a year ago).  Inflation is down, which is a big deal but they do not seems to care.  In any case, people confuse lower inflation with lower prices, which Rouhani had never promised.  They also did not understand that when government spends less to bring down inflation, it also slows down the rate of increase in wages.  Money illusion affects people in more advanced countries as well, though Iranians have a more from case of it because productivity is not the first thing that comes to their minds when they think about living standards.  Instead, they think of the country’s great national wealth under the ground, which a good government would distribute better.  In any case, can you blame them for expecting that lower inflation would mean higher income if the economic media equated inflation with loss of real income as they did while they were busy criticizing Ahmadinejad? (more…)

The 2017/18 budget

Posted in General, Macroeconomy by Djavad on April 17, 2017

If President Rouhani is re-elected to office next month, he will be presiding over his fourth frugal budget.  This is how he has gotten inflation down to single digits, and kudos to him for that, but the economic growth that he promised when he was elected has not materialized, and this frugality, borne out of his supply side economic views, is partly to blame.  If you expected to see a more expansive and stimulating budget because you heard oil minister Zanganeh say that oil exports will double in 2017/18, or noted the one-third higher expected oil price in the proposed budget, you might be wondering why this budget is only 10% larger than last year’s (see the number in the table below). You are not alone. (more…)

Highlights from Iran’s 2016 census

Posted in General by Djavad on April 13, 2017

The summary results of Iran’s latest census, taken in the fall of 2016 (1395), shows that the country has finally reached the 80 million size that people have been talking about for some time (1.8 million are listed as foreign, mostly from Afghanistan).  The summary results were out in record time, published in March 2017, in large part the results of the fact that nearly half of the families filled the census form online, and the information from the rest was collected digitally.  It took two years to design and 40,000 people to complete (one-third fewer than in previous censuses).  The quick release of the results also attests to the increasing efficiency of the Statistical Center of Iran (SCI) in processing census and survey data.   However, the World Bank scores Iran’s statistical capacity below that of India and Morocco, which surprised me, but on the good side the score is much higher in 2016 than it was in 2004.

Here are some highlights from the published summary. (more…)

Thomas Schelling (1921-2016) and the Iran nuclear deal

Posted in General, Sanctions by Djavad on December 21, 2016

Thomas Schooling, who died last week at the ripe age of 95, was the winner of the Nobel Economics prize in 2005 and the economist who “saved the world,” as fellow Nobelist Roger Myerson put it.  In his essay honoring Schelling, Myerson wrote that his classic book, Strategy of Conflict (Harvard University Press, 1960), “should be recognized as one of the most important and influential books in history of social science.”

Schelling came to Harvard’s economics department in 1960, and later helped found the Harvard Kennedy School (where I am visiting this academic year).  He is also credited with the establishment of public policy as a legitimate and rigorous field of study, one that Iran’s education system undervalues.

When I was in graduate school here, in the 1970s, he was one of several residents of Littauer (the building that then housed the economics department and the School of Government, before the latter became HKS) who whisked about the building wearing bow ties and shuttled back and forth to Washington to give advice.  Although he liked to think of his role in government as helping decision-makers learn about choices and understand their consequences, he has been criticized for his role in the Vietnam war.  He had supported the bombing of North Vietnam based on the theory (in the hope?) that Ho Chi Min would see it as a signal and would thus deter his further actions. In the event, the North Vietnamese saw it as the American desire to destroy their country and fought harder.

Which takes me to Schelling’s connection to Iran and his advice for how the US should approach negotiations with Iran, in particular avoiding humiliation and overuse of threats.


In January 2008, he visited Iran at the invitation of Sharif University’s School of Management and Economics, at the height of the nuclear standoff.  You see him here gracefully accepting an honorary PhD from Sharif.


At the time it was reported in the Iranian press that he was critical of the US sanctions against Iran, but as far as I can tell this is not a policy implication the models of conflict for which he is famous (I cannot find any references in English to this effect).  Sanctions were quite mild in 2008 compared to what they morphed into a few years later.  He learned from his trip that foreign policy decisions in Iran are made by Ayatollah Khamenei, the supreme leader, and not by the firebrand Mahmoud Ahmadinejad.   He knew that in any conflict, identifying the actual decision makers was critical to its resolution or at least peaceful coexistence.

There were more important ways in which Schelling’s thinking was relevant for the Iran nuclear dispute.  Having learned a lesson from his Vietnam intervention, he offered more tempered counsel on how a powerful county like the US confronts a smaller adversary like Iran.   He criticized those threatening war to stop Iran’s nuclear program and considered the US refrain of “All options are on the table” unwise, preferring to say, ‘No – we’re negotiating through the U.N.; we’re not going to do anything unilaterally.”  As the talk of regime change is returning to the highest levels of US foreign policy making, thanks to Trump’s cabinet appointments, Schelling’s counsel is worth remembering.

One of the ideas for which Schelling is famous is coordination without communication and how people with opposing interest find ways to cooperate.  For example, people who lose each other in a large city can nevertheless find each other by converging on a place each expects the others to think of as a likely point of default, the “Schelling point.” In disputes between nations, his model showed how adversaries communicate by threats without having to talk directly to each other.  Nevertheless, to avoid accidents, his policy advice was for direct communications, as in the famous Hotline between Moscow and Washington.

Iran is not a nuclear power, but misunderstandings and accidents threaten the nuclear deal reached in July 2014 daily.   Direct communication between top US and Iran nuclear negotiators, thanks to personal rapport between Kerry and Zarif and Muniz and Salehi, has been credited with not only reaching the nuclear accord, but also of keeping it from unraveling due to small but inevitable mishaps. For example, the overproduction of heavy water reported by the IAEA in November could have triggered punitive action on the part of the US and escalated into the full blown crisis had it not been for the ability of the parties to talk and settle the issue before it got out of hand.  The loss of such communication will be one of the many casualties of the US presidential election, as the creators of the JCPOA are replaced with its adversaries.  This will be a serious threat to the nuclear deal even if Trump does not follow through with his election promise to tear it up.

New data on internet use in Iran

Posted in General by Djavad on October 30, 2016

It has been a while since I posted anything here.  Today, I am prompted to write because my “good” excuse for the long absence has been removed.  The website of the Statistical Center of Iran (SCI), which has been inaccessible from outside Iran since it was hacked last May, is back on.  (My other excuse — resettling in Cambridge, MA, to spend my sabbatical year (2016/17) at the Middle East Initiative of Harvard Kennedy School — is less valid every day.)
Access to the regular inflow of data from the SCI website has been crucial for my writing on this blog as well as for my academic research.  Without numbers, the blog would turn into the Tyranny of Opinions on Iran, of which there is plenty already.  So yesterday I was pleasantly surprised  to discover that access to the site for users outside Iran had been restored (hopefully permanently), and I found several interesting new reports to read and write about. (more…)

Elections in times of economic crisis

Posted in General, Inequality, Poverty by Djavad on March 13, 2016

In a post that I published earlier this week on the Brookings blog, Future Development, I argued that because Iran’s February 26 parliamentary elections took place at an economically inopportune time the success of the moderate candidates is all the more significant.  In my last post here, written a couple days before the election, I had presented some evidence for the poor state of the economy — loss of industrial jobs and falling living standards since Rouhani’s election in June 2013.  In this post I expand the discussion of living standards, poverty, and inequality in recent years. (more…)